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Collective decisions managed the important matters that affected the everyday life and function of the various Aboriginal societies around Australia through traditional educational lore and practice.

There is no doubt that Aboriginal law existed, if not in writing, then in the hearts and minds of the people. Each society was different, each region had its own ways and laws.

But how was the spirit of our law – particularly the law of care and affection – passed on to the younger generation? I believe this was done by my Papatu and Mukutul.

I am convinced that my Yapu’s strong ethics and his great parenting skills began from the moment he became an embryo. Tucked away in the safety of his Kaya’s womb she would have begun thinking about nurturing the development of her first Pipi and passing on spiritual connections to her Kuthara-Kalkara mob, country, community and culture with its continuous endless love.

As his youngest Kuthama I experienced his never-ending love of Kuthara-Kalkara, culture and country. He lived a full life with the traits that were instilled in him, to always be positive, encouraging, loving, strong work ethics, family commitment, friendly and successful.

Papatu – paternal grandfather, also maternal grandmother • Mukutul – paternal grandmother
Yapu – father • Kaya – mother • Pipi – baby • Kuthara-Kalkara – family
Kuthama – daughter 


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